Indonesia: Developing and Implementing Gender Responsive Climate Strategies

Developing and Implementing Gender Responsive Climate Strategies
Prepared by: PAKLIM Working Area 1 Gender Working Group (Moh. Nurhadi, Ratna Budiarti, Fitria
Aurora Feliciani)

A. Overview of PAKLIM
Indonesia is among the world’s large emitters of greenhouse gases. The consumption of fossil fuels
(generated by the industry, energy and transport sector) is currently 275 Mt CO2 equivalent to 9 –
10% of global greenhouse gas emissions, and growing rapidly due to the need for further
development in the service sector, transport and large scale industries. Additionally, in comparison
to other countries in the region, a lesser degree of decoupling between productivity and GHG
emissions exists. Indonesia clearly suffers from the social and economic impacts of climate change.
Overall, the disaster sensitivity and vulnerability will significantly increase.
Climate change has two side of coins related to gender. Climate change is contributed differently
among men and women. Climate change also affects men and women differently due to social
norms, traditional roles and power structures. Women limited access to resources, restricted rights,
and a muted voice in shaping decisions make them highly vulnerable to climate change. Women
especially in developing countries are faced with a higher vulnerability to climate change impacts
than men. Due to its different social construction, women and men exhibit different ways of
responding to climate change and they are differently affected by climate policies and measures. In
most cases climate change triggers give extra stress to women that have been constructed
unequally.

The overall goal of the module of PAKLIM (Policy Advice for Environment and Climate Change) is:
Indonesian cities, industrial enterprises and the national government plan and implement new
climate strategies and instruments. The program operates with three components: (1) National and
Local Policy Advise; (2) Mitigation of greenhouse gases from stationary sources in industries and
cities; (3) Climate Change and education. GIZ PAKLIM is classified as a G-1 program, meaning that
gender equality and gender mainstreaming are “significant (secondary) policy objectives […] which,
although important, are not one of the principal reasons for undertaking the activity”1

B. Gender mainstreaming and implementation in PAKLIM
In relation to crosscutting issue of climate and gender, PAKLIM aims to close gender inequality gap in
its working approach and/or leading to better gender equality, through a sensitive and responsive
climate strategy advisory. PAKLIM understand the integration of gender analysis in the planning and
implementation of the program is a must. To integrate and mainstream gender aspect into climate
strategy and action, PAKLIM establishes gender working group in each working areas for both
internal staff and partners. This working group assigned to integrate gender aspect in the planning
and implementation of PAKLIM and acts as gender vocal point for local partner and communicate
the result of gender assessment. The working group do not only intervene in term of human
knowledge and awareness but also might suggest to revise tool or change approach and encourage
gender consideration in various project activities.

In order to manage this task, the working group
adopts and modifies project management cycle into
gender mainstreaming cycle (Figure 1). This cycle is
started with gender assessment; followed up with
gender option analysis; goal/action setting and gender
perspective integration into current and future plans,
policy, and program; monitoring the climate action
implementation; and evaluation of gender indicator in
the climate action implementation. Process of
mainstreaming gender in PAKLIM is illustrated in the
following steps:

1. Gender Assessment
The project conducted general gender assessment to identify which areas of actions within the
PAKLIM program scope are sensitive to gender. The assessments are conducted independently and
to some extent also collaborated with local governments, community, and other organizations such
as ASA Program and NGOs (i.e. Mercy Corps and Bintari Foundation). ASA is a Program promoting
exchange and learning for young and dedicate people to expand their skills and to contribute to
sustainable global development. These collaborations are also part of gender awareness. PAKLIM
has conducted gender analysis on coastal adaptation in Pekalongan city, transport

 Is technology for the action
plan is available?
 Is the action plan applying
the eco-friendly principle
(safe for the
environment)?
 Is the action plan bring
greater benefits than
actual cost spending
(Cost benefit analysis)?
 Is action plan align with
social values?
 Is the action plan
increase gender
equality/gender bias?
 Is the action plan based
on the equity
principles?

In some specific topics, some options to improve gender sensitive climate strategy are also discussed
and adopted among others are merging women and men organization into one single organization;
increase women participation and team up with men organization, conduct gender differentiated
analysis in each project, conduct gender awareness raising for city government and community
leaders, and design gender sensitive monitoring.
For the sustainability of the program, PAKLIM trains and coaches local consultant to develop climate
strategy. During this activity, gender working group also introduced gender sensitivity through
methodology of Integrated Climate Action (ICA). PAKLIM also disseminates the crosscutting issue of
gender and climate change beyond government sectors to general public, professionals, academics
and communities both internationally and locally through 3rd Connective Cities Green Cities for Sustainable Urban Mobility 2016 in Cebu Manila, Philippines on gender and transportation
challenges in Semarang city, as well as gender and integration for development of in climate
responsive village training for environment cadres Greater Malang East Java and Yogyakarta in
cooperation with Ministry or Environment and Forestry.

3. Develop Goal and Integrate to Climate Action
Gender gap in climate action
plans are recognized. Gender
options are prioritized and
adopted further into climate
action plan to ensure a gender
balance involvement and
integrate gender analysis in the
planning and implementation
of the action plan. PAKLIM
through its advice profile
ensures for relevant
stakeholders -governments, NGOs and communities groups- to take into account and incorporate
gender in the climate action plans. This efforts will not only increase the value of sustainability of
climate actions, it also attract the international climate funding. PAKLIM promotes gender equality
through merging women and men organization into one single organization and increase women
participation for climate action located in Pekalongan city, one of PAKLIM city partner (Figure 2). This
also applied for registering climate action funding, gender aspect is incorporated through the
Mangrove for the Future Project in Probolinggo City and Regency. Women groups of farmers been
involved in the process of decision making as well as implementation.

4. Monitoring
Gender has been included into the PAKLIM monitoring system. This provide continuous reminder of
gender integration in various activities addressing by each gender vocal point. During project
implementation in cooperation between PAKLIM and stakeholders, the gender equality is
considered in many different aspect. In the basic level, for example making sure the equal number of
men and women participation. Climate actions still give many opportunities for equal access for both
men and women to participate actively. In the projects advice level with stakeholders, PAKLIM also
encourage equal opportunities and active participation for during climate action implementation.

5. Evaluation
PAKLIM gender working group conducted a regular meeting to discuss different issue of gender
aspect within PAKLIM the project. This opportunity is also used for evaluation both from result and
overall gender integration process. In project level, PAKLIM has conducted a joint evaluation to
examine the impact of gender integration into the project output.

C. The Impact and possible contribution to sustainability
By setting up gender working group, internal and external awareness on gender issues provide a
constant consideration of gender equality within project and PAKLIM advising profile.
From the gender assessment conducted has shown and communicated to stakeholders that climate
change has affected to men and women differently due to different role in the community, because
women and men respond differently. As a result, city governments have evaluated and considered
several activities that give negative impact to women. Considering that social role construction are
not easily changed, city governments and NGOs integrate gender into the project as a way to
promote gender equality in various ways for example through opening dialogue to men and women
for joint discussion and decision, organizing women into women association (rather than blended or
mixed men and women in one organization), assessing activities that could be handled by men and
women, opening access for women in the implementation. Further to that, city governments start
to expand the focus not only in the public sphere activity but also in the domestic space, where
women have more roles and impacts. The increased awareness of gender among stakeholders will
impact on further on the climate actions with better gender mainstreaming and consideration.
The impact and sustainability in project level, for example lesson learnt from the gender
mainstreaming process in coastal adaptation activities in Pekalongan city and Semarang city, based
on Bintari Foundation observation and monitoring report, gender integration has given a positive
result to adaptation action. Participation of men and women in adaptation action give additional
value and success program. Involving both men and women will maximize the project output since
they will cooperate and complete the role of each. Furthermore, as PAKLIM has expanded the
assessment in other topics namely transportation, energy use in household and waste management
and the finding shows that in those three topics women have limited access and special need that
never been consider in policy or program. These have been become valuable insights and
contribution to strengthen the gender consideration and increased sustainability for climate strategy
and action plans.

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