Does Green Mobility Mean for Climate and Gender?
Prepared by: PAKLIM Working Area 1 Gender Working Group (Moh. Nurhadi, Ratna Budiarti, Fitria
1. Promoting Gender Equality
Greenhouse gases (GHG) from transportation covers 18.2% of GHG from energy sector in Indonesia
in year 2000 (Indonesia SNC, 2009). GHG from AFOLU sector as the highest contributor, soon will be
taken over by transportation and energy sectors by 2018 due to the tendency of growth up to 3.74%
until 2030 (INDC, 2015; SNC, 2009). The rapid growth of urbanisation is blamed as major factor
contributing GHG from transportation. In the 10 Indonesian cities supported by PAKLIM,
transportation is the major source of GHG emissions with 40-60% share of overall cities’ emissions.
The high GHG of transportation caused by the poor condition of public transportation that lead to
increase the use of private vehicles. Public transportation are still managed without proper schedule,
limited choice, route and uncomfortable vehicles. In addition to that the supporting facilities such as
shelter and bus stop are mostly located in a dark, uneasy access and open space. Urban
transportation is not designed with respect to gender differentiated needs. Currently, the number of
public transportation is declining whereas private transportation mode continue to rise in urban
Gender assessment on urban transportation conducted by Gender Working Group show three
valuable findings. Firstly, women have different access to own private vehicle than men. It covers
ownership, selling right and shifting the authority of belonging i.e. in the case of collateral. Secondly,
women have lower access to use private vehicle in a family than men. Women are socially
constructed as less capable in driving than men. It apparently causes injustice and psychologically
affected on women driving style. These two factors pushes many women to use public
transportation. Thirdly, there is a local norm of Javanese culture to restrict women to go out at
night. Women who go out at night are considered as “naughty women”.
The poor public transportation conditions give more disadvantages for women rather than men. In
order to establish a gender equal transportation, Gender Working Group recommend to (1) improve
illumination of shelter and bus stop, (2) put shelter on accessible location, (3) improve bus and
shelter design to accommodate women’s needs (pregnancy and nursery) as well as elderly and
children, (4) install CCTV and emergency button inside bus to improve passengers security, (5)
promote women as ambassador of safety transportation. These finding was communicated and
integrated further into transportation policy making.
Implementation of gender sensitive transport has led to better image of public transportation. The
demand of public transportation is growing. The Semarang City as the pilot of gender sensitive
transportation has expanded the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system rapidly. Within period of five years
(2010-2015) Semarang city has increased the number of BRT from 16 to 78 units with total
13.809.600 passengers’ trips. The bus corridor also expanded from one into five corridors. The bus
procurements’ system also directed towards gender sensitive facility and security. With the shifting
of passengers to public transportation has resulted 14,472 CO2 emission reduction (Central Java
2. Gender as a quality feature of our work
The PAKLIM counter partners initially ignored gender issue. They believe that provision of public
transportation for all will automatically serve both men and women without any discrimination.
Gender assessment is considered irrelevant with urban transportation improvement. In order to
improve gender equality, PAKLIM started with gender awareness rising through seminar, dialogue,
and informative exchange to establish proper knowledge and understanding.
PAKLIM established Gender Working Group that consist PAKLIM staff and its relevant stakeholders.
This working group conduct assessments to identify and assess gender inequality and its potential
improvement in some prioritized sectors including urban transportation. Through the studies,
commitment of local government to integrate gender aspect for the future upscaling transportation
management are strengthen. Gender agenda and recommendation are integrated in the
transportation policies includes physical infrastructure, modes and expand the routes. Other cities
also interested to adopt gender sensitive transport approach. PAKLIM will follow up the interest of
city counter partners by developing gender rating tool on transportation. Based on this assessment
PAKLIM will give recommendations how to develop gender sensitive public transportation. Due to
this effort, PAKLIM has earned third prize in communicating gender in GIZ ASEAN and Timor Leste in
2015. The experience and lesson learnt has been shared internally to other GIZ projects.
Internationally, the gender and transportation challenges in Semarang city was shared through the
3rd Connective Cities: Green Cities for Sustainable Urban Mobility 2016 in Cebu Manila, Philippines.
It gave insights on better transportation planning among countries participants.
3. Gender and RBM
Internally, gender aspect has been integrated in PAKLIM monitoring system for overall working
areas. The gender and transportation issue is part of advisory services to the government through
gender and climate strategies analysis on differentiated sectors. The study of gender and
transportation case study Semarang city conducted is part of the analysis and part of advisory
services. The result of study of gender and transportation was discussed as part of agenda and issue
that needs to be further monitored in yearly Plan of Operation with stakeholders.
Other gender assessments are conducted and documented in the monitoring system among others
are gender in streetlight in Makassar City, gender and energy efficiency in households in Malang
City, coastal adaptation in Pekalongan City, and waste management. The reports are disseminated
through publication, workshop, website and newsletter.
The gender and transportation issues in climate change initiated by stakeholder analysis. Based from
the results stakeholder analysis, meeting of relevant parties in gender and transportation for
brainstorming is conducted. All parties agreed that any transportation and climate issue should not
widen the gender gaps. It also decided to form working group. The gender working group involves in
transportation comes from various background from local governments – city planning board,
transportation agency, transportation association, women groups, community groups, universities
and local NGOs. The working group work on several agenda on transportation includes gender
assessment. Some of challenges of conducting this work people tends to ignored correlation
between gender and transportation. The society believes that provision of current transportation
already serve both men and women without proper knowledge, information and examination. In
addition, the strong social construction of bad image women conducting trips around city at night
still strong and evident among society. The three key success factors are evidence, women
participation and multi stakeholders’ cooperation which leads gender work on urban transport to
progress further. Evidence through deep assessment, users testimony and field report are important
to show and to change people opinion that has been influence long term social construction.
Achieving gender equality is impossible without women participation. Women participation gives a
balance angle and perspectives without ignoring men participation. The last important key is
cooperation. In most cases gender is a social construction that believed and practiced major society.
Only through cooperation and collaboration from various parties, changing the gender construction
and belief will be possible.